Early Works on Proportional Voting

BUCKALEW, C.R. Proportional Representation. Philadelphia: John Campbell and Son, 1872. An excerpt can be found in Voting and Democracy Report 1995. Washington, D.C.: The Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995, pp. 31-33.

COMMONS, JOHN R. Proportional Representation. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1907.

DUTCHER, SAMUEL. Minority or Proportional Representation. New York: ????, 1872.

GILPIN, THOMAS. On the Representation of Minorities of Electors to Act with the Majority in Elected Assemblies. Philadelphia: J.C. Clark, 1844. (Reprinted in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1896.)

HARE, THOMAS, The Election of Representatives, Parliamentary and Municipal (London: Longman, Roberts, Green, 1859).

----. The Machinery of Representation. 2nd ed. (London: 1875).

HOAG, CLARENCE G. and GEORGE H. HALLETT, JR., Proportional Representation (New York: Macmillan, 1926).

HUMPHREYS, JOHN H. Proportional Representation. London: Methuen and Co., 1911.

MILL, JOHN STUART. Considerations on Representative Government. 2d ed. London: Park, Son, and Bourn, 1861.

U.S. SENATE. "Report of the Select Committee of the United States Senate on Representative Reform," Senate document, 40th Congress, 3d session, No. 271, March 2, 1869. (Advocates cumulative vote.)