Electoral Systems in General

AMY, DOUGLAS. Behind the Ballot Box:  A Citizen's Guide to Voting Systems.  New York:  Praeger Publishing, 2000.

BOGDANOR, VERNON and DAVID BUTLER. Democracy and Elections: Electoral Systems and Their Political Consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

BOIX, CARLES. "Setting the Rules of the Game:  The Choice of Electoral Systems in Advanced Democracies."  American Political Science Review 93 no. 3 (Sept. 1999) p. 609-24.

BRAMS, STEVEN J. and PETER C. FISHBURN, Approval Voting (Boston: Birkhauser, 1983).

COSSOLOTTO, MATTHEW. The Almanac of European Politics 1995.   Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1995.

DARCY, R., SUSAN WELCH, and JANET CLARK. Women, Elections, and Representation. New York: Longman, 1987.

FARRELL, DAVID M. Comparing Electoral Systems. New York: Prentice Hall, 1997.

FARRELL, DAVID, MALCOLM MACKERRAS, and IAN MCALLISTER. "Designing Electoral Institutions: STV Systems and their Consequences." Political Studies (1996) XLIV, 24-43.

GROFMAN, BERNARD. "Alternatives to Single-Member Plurality Districts: Legal and Empirical Issues." Policy Studies Journal, special issue 3 (1980-81): 875-98.

GROFMAN, BERNARD, ed. Toward Fair and Effective Representation: Political Gerrymandering and the Courts. New York: Agathon, 1990.

GROFMAN, BERNARD and AREND LIJPHART, eds. Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences. New York: Agathon, 1986.

KATZ, RICHARD S. A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.

LAKEMAN, ENID. Power to Elect: The Case for Proportional Representation. London: Heinemann, 1982.

LAKEMAN, ENID and JAMES LAMBERT. Voting in Democracies. London: Faber and Faber, 1959.

LEDUC, LAWRENCE, RICHARD NIEMI, and PIPPA NORRIS, eds.  Comparing Democracies:  Elections and Voting in Global Perspective.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications, 1996.

LIJPHART, AREND. Patterns of Democracy: Government forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.

----. Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

----. "Constitutional Choices for New Democracies." Journal of Democracy 2, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 72-84.

----. "Double-Checking the Evidence." Journal of Democracy 2, no. 3 (Summer 1991): 42-48.

----. "The Pattern of Electoral Rules in the United States: A Deviant Case Among the Industrialized Democracies." Government and Opposition 20 (Winter 1985), 18-28.

----. "The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws, 1945-1985." American Political Science Review 84, no. 2 (June 1990): 481-96.

LIJPHART, AREND and BERNARD GROFMAN, eds. Choosing an Electoral System: Issues and Alternatives. New York: Praeger, 1984.

MACKIE, TOM and RICHARD ROSE. International Almanac of Electoral History. Glasgow, Scotland: Center for the Study of Public Policy, University of Strathclyde, 1997.

NORRIS, PIPPA. Choosing electoral Systems:  Proportional, Majoritarian, and Mixed Systems."  International Political Science Review 18, no. 3 (July 1997), p. 297.

POWELL, G. BINGHAM.   Elections as a Tool of Democracy:  Majoritarian and Proportional Visions. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2000.

RAE, DOUGLAS W. The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1971.

REYNOLDS, ANDREW and BEN REILLY.  The International IDEA Handbook of Electoral System Design.  Stockholm, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 1997.

ROYAL COMMISSION ON THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM. Report of the Royal Commission on the Electoral System: Towards a Better Democracy. Wellington, New Zealand: V.R. Ward, Government Printer, 1986.

TAAGEPERA, REIN and MATTHEW SOBERG SHUGART. Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989.

ZIMMERMAN, JOSEPH F. "Alternative Local Election Systems." National Civic Review 79, no. 1 (January-February 1990): 23-36.