Using Choice Voting in School Elections
Choice voting is the form of proportional representation most commonly used for student elections in the United States. While the winner-take-all systems currently found at most schools allow dominant groups to sweep the vast majority of seats, choice voting lets smaller student groups consolidate their support and win representation. When implemented at colleges and universities, choice voting has typically resulted in more diverse legislative bodies, greater student engagement and increased turnout.

FairVote works closely with schools that have adopted proportional representation to study how it is operating and how we can assist with future student government reform. If your school is interested in adopting proportional representation please visit our colleges and universities section for more information on how to adopt choice voting.

Schools using Choice Voting

(Note that this list is incomplete: if you are aware of any other colleges or universities using a choice voting, or considering choice voting, please contact us.)

Harvard University
Harvard uses the choice voting system to tally their ballots for the Harvard-Radcliffe Undergraduate council as outlined in Article II, Section 21.4 of their Constitution. Created in the spring of 1982 to serve as an advocate for student concerns, organize campus-wide social events, and provide funding for student organizations, the Havard-Radcliffe Undergraduate council has an annual budget of approximately $210,000.  It is the first centralized and funded student government in the history of Harvard College.

Lewis and Clark College
In March 2005, the Associated Students of Lewis and Clark College, Portland Oregon adopted instant runoff voting for all single seat elections, and choice voting for all multi-seat elections. Article IV of the student association bylaws describes choice voting as the “most democratic method” of counting ballots.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MIT's Undergraduate Association uses choice voting to elect all student officers. Article 5, Section 5 of their bylaws outlines the procedures for counting ballots using choice voting.  

Princeton University
Choice voting is used to elect the undergraduate members of the Council of the Princeton University Committee. There are 10 seats available during each spring election and students are asked to rank up to 10 candidates on the ballot.

University of California at Berkeley
UCB uses IRV and choice voting to elect student officers. Their voting procedures are outlined in Article VII, Section 5 of their constitution.

University of California - Davis
The Associated Students of the University of California - Davis (ASUCD) has used choice voting since January 2002.  Over 2,000 students signed petitions to add choice voting to the ASUCD.  Since then, voter turnout has increased consistently each year.  The elected officials of the ASUCD are responsible for managing a $9.2 million dollar operational budget, which funds a host of student services. A fundamental characteristic of ASUCD is that it is primarily student managed and staffed, employing about 1,500 students.

University of Michigan
UM uses the 'Borda count' voting system within their LSA Student Government (College of Literature, Science, and the Arts) as stated in Article VII, Section C-2 of their constitution. The MSA (Michigan Student Assembly) also uses the 'Borda count' method to elect their representatives, as outlined in Article V, Section A-1 of their constitution.

Vassar College
In September of 2002 Vassar's student government voted nearly unanimously to adopt instant runoff voting and the choice voting for future student elections.  

Whitman College
Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington uses IRV for its single-seat elections and choice voting to elects its Student Senate.

Schools Using Other Proportional Representation Systems

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
The Student Government uses the open party list form of Proportional representation for legislative offices and instant runoff voting for executive offices.  2002 was the first election under these voting rules.

Carleton College (Northfield, MN)
Cumulative Voting, a form of Proportional representation that elects representatives from multi-member districts, has long been used for legislative elections at Carleton.

Recent Articles
October 19th 2009
A better election system
Lowell Sun

Election expert Doug Amy explains how choice voting can "inject new blood" into the elections of Lowell (MA), and give voters a greater incentive to participate.

October 16th 2009
Haven't Detroit voters spoken enough?
Livingston Daily

In Detroit, there have been three mayors in the past two years and the current one has come under scrutiny. Perhaps a system like instant runoff voting will help bring political stability to motor city.

August 21st 2009
Black candidate for Euclid school board to test new voting system
Cleveland Plain Dealer

Limited voting, a form of proportional voting, will be used in Euclid (OH), in the hopes of allowing better representation of minorities.

July 2nd 2009
Reforming Albany
New York Times

FairVote's Rob Richie responds in a letter to the editor making the case for proportional voting systems to bring substantive reform to New York's legislature.