• Political Gerrymandering
    Political gerrymandering is the drawing of electoral district lines in a manner that discriminates against a political party. When used to insure party success, political gerrymandering is usually legal but can be contested. At this time it is legal to draw district lines to protect incumbents of both parties.


  • Racial Gerrymandering I
    Racial gerrymandering originally referred to manipulating legislative district lines to under-represent racial minorities. Tactics such as "packing" black voters into a given district or "cracking" them to make black voters a minority in all districts can be illegal. This sort of gerrymandering was first used in the South after the Civil War to dilute the black vote.


  • Racial Gerrymandering II
    In 1982, the Voting Rights Act was amended to require many political jurisdictions to create "majority-minority" districts in order to allow more racial minorities to elect candidates of their choice. After the 1990 census, the Supreme Court invalidated several such redistricting plans as unconstitutionally race-conscious.