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Full Representation Around the World: Articles Arranged by Country


Afghanistan China (Hong Kong) Kenya Russia
Armenia Estonia Korea (South) Serbia
Australia Fiji Lebanon South Africa
Austria France(Corsica) Lethoso Sri Lanka
Azerbaijan Ghana Liberia Uganda
Bahamas Greece Malta Ukraine
Bangladesh India Mexico UK (England)
Barbados Indonesia Monaco UK (N. Ireland)
Botswana Ireland Namibia UK (Scotland)
Bulgaria Italy New Zealand UK (Wales)
Cambodia Israel Nepal US (Puerto Rico)
Canada Japan Poland

Note: For more articles, try a Google News search on "proportional representation"

Try these links for background information on Afghan politics and elections: Afghanistan, Afghanistan 

IPS News: "Insecurity Threatens Newly-Won Women's Rights." The new constitution for Afghanistan includes full representation provisions as well as quotas for women representatives in the national legislature. January 14, 2004.

Try these links for background information on Armenian politics and elections: Armenia, Armenia, Psephos: Armenia. Coalition Government Likely Outcome of May 25 Parliament Elections in Armenia. Article written a few days before the 2003 elections for parliament and for a referendum on adopting a new constitution, discussing the parties and the issues at stake. In 2002, Austria adopted a parallel system for its legislature, which is a combination of full represention and winner-take-all. May 22, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Australian politics and elections: Australia, Australia "How Tough is the QLD Question?" Senator John Cherry analyzes the Queensland electoral statistics, and ABC election analyst Antony Green provides a response. January 20, 2004.

Sydney Morning Herald: Ideas to save our withering democracy. Candidate for presidency of the Australian Labor Party presents a manifesto stating her beliefs about Australian politics and democracy. She believes that full representation leads to higher turnout and fewer wasted votes. August 7, 2003.

PM, Australia: Howards Senate plans . The Australian Prime Minister has suggested a measure that would reduce the powers of the Senate. August 11, 2003.

The Guardian: One Nation leader in fraud case. Brief article about the defeat of ex-Australian Member of Parliament Pauline Hanson, and her disintegrating One Nation party. July 16, 2003.

The Age: Sword alleges ALP branch-stacking. Australian Labor Party leader Greg Sword comes down on the practice of branch-stacking (insincerely stuffing local party branches with members in order to gain control of them). The Australian Workers Unions has made a proposal for full representation (proportional representation) to be used for candidate selection within the Labor party. March 5, 2003.

Sydney Morning Herald, Australia: Major changes in the house as the mice all roar. In the New South Wales region of Australia, which includes Sydney, small parties are gaining ground on the biggest three parties (Labor, Liberal, and National.) The Parliament of New South Wales is divided into two houses, the Legislative Assembly, or lower house, and the legislative council, or upper house. Elections to the lower house are divided into 93 single member districts, using instant runoff voting, and the upper house is elected by choice voting in one state-wide district. March 1, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Austrian politics and elections: Austria, Politics of Austria, Austria, IFES Electionguide for elections in 2002.

Reuters: Austrians Begin Voting, Outcome Wide Open. Article written on the day of the 2002 elections forcecasts big losses for the Freedom Party of Austria, which turned out to be accurate. November 24, 2002.

Try these links for backgroud information on Azerbaijan politics and elections: Azerbaijan, Politics of Azerbaijan Little to Lose: Opposition in Azerbaijan . This article discusses the political effects of a referendum passed in 2002, which eliminates full representation from Azerbaijan national government, and thus decreases the ability of dissenting parties to participate in government. It also provides extensive background on the history of political parties in Azerbaijan since independence. February 3, 2003.

Try these links for background information on politics and elections in the Bahamas: Bahamas, Wikipedia: Bahamas

Nassau Guardian: Constitution Reform booklet launched . Constitutional reform is underway in the Bahamas, where the Constitutional Reform Commission has begun its public education campaign. The Commission intends to use public referendums to guide the process. One of the issues up for discussion is wither the Bahamas should move to a full representation system. July 16, 2003.

Try these links for background information on politics and elections in Bangladesh: Bangladesh, Wikipedia: Bangladesh

The Daily Star: "All-party consensus needed to increase parliament seats." Leading intellectuals and professionals critique the government's decision to increase the number of constituencies used in parliamentary elections. January 17, 2004.

The New Nation: "Badruddoza says: 'I resigned to avert constitutional crisis'." Following his resignation former President Badruddoza Chowdhury reiterated a call for political reforms, including proportional representation. January 6, 2004.

The Daily Star, Bangladesh: Parliamentary reforms: Laws for lawmakers are the crying need. Opinion article suggests that Bangladeshs Parliament suffers from corruption and self-interest. Advocates various structural reforms, including the use of a full representation system to replace the current plurality system. July 22, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Barbados politics and elections: Barbados, Politics of Barbados, Barbados

Barbados Daily Nation : Reasonings: Democracy under threat ? Editorial in favor of full representation in Barbados. Under the current plurality system, there are only two opposition members in the 28 member parliament. January 20, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Botswana politics and elections: BotswanaWikipedia: Botswana, Psephos: Botswana

Mmegi, Bostwana: "Koma calls for proportional representation." Botswana member of parliament renews his call for proportional representation, arguing that the nation would receive international praise for using such a system. November 26, 2003.

Daily News, Botswana: Perpetual rule, opposition party splits frustrating, says MISA director. The director of the Media Institute for Southern Africa, speaking at a Botswana Congress Party conference, calls for a an electoral system combining full representation (proportional representation) with single-member districts. Botswana currently uses the plurality system, and the National Assembly has been dominated by a single party for decades. July 28, 2003.

Mmegi, Botswana: BCP revels in progress. The Botswana Congress Party is calling for a change from the plurality system, to a combined system of full representation. The BCP won 11.3% of the vote in the 1999 National Assembly elections, but only won 2.5% of the seats. July 25, 2003.

Republic of Botswana, Botswana: Koosaletse criticises govt pact with US. The Botswana Congress Party, who support full representation, are critical of a deal that the ruling party has made, which exempts US nationals from provisions of the International Criminal Court. July 24, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Bulgarian politics and elections: Bulgaria, Wikipedia: Bulgaria Bulgarias Electoral Code Passed at First Reading . Bulgarias Parliament passed a new Electoral code which changes the voting system from direct party list full representation to a parallel semi-proportional system. July 2, 2003

Try these links for background information on Cambodian politics and elections: Cambodia, Wikipedia: Cambodia

Voice of America News: Ruling Party Wins Cambodian Election . Article discusses the results of the election and their implications. August, 2003.

Associated Press Asia: Officials Confirm Hun Sen Partys Leads. Cambodia, which uses a party list form of full representation, also has a requirement that parties or coalitions must have two-thirds control in Parliament to form a government. The KPK or Cambodian Peoples Party, led by Hun Sen, has won a clear majority of the seats, but nevertheless must form a coalition in order to create a government. The difficulty of this may lead to prolonged political deadlock. July 31, 2003.

FairVote Canada is the leading group working toward electoral reform in the country. Try these links for background information on Canadian politics and elections: Canada, Wikipedia: Canada. Also see information on British Columbia's Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform and electoral reform projects around the nation.

Rabble News: "Jack Layton: bringing energy and new hope." Canada will be holding a national election this spring, and the Liberals are suddenly beset by a scandal that could weaken their stranglehold on parliament.  The New Democratic Party is rising in the polls, and its leader has said that if it's in a position to allow the Liberals to run the government, a non-negotiable demand is a national referendum on PR. February 17, 2004.

The Miami Herald: "Canadian Briefs - Nova Scotia Premier supports electing senators for vacant positions." Whereas Canadian senators are traditionally appointed by the Prime Minister, the Nova Scotia Premier will follow Alberta's lead and hold elections for seats as they become vacant. NDP leader Jack Layton dismissed this move and asserted that steps towards electoral reform should lead to full representation in the House of Commons. February 8, 2004.

The Globe and Mail: "Panel to recommend proportional voting." The independent Law Commission of Canada will recommend in a March report that the House of Commons adopt a full representation system for electing members of parliament. Critics fear that such a change would result in governmental chaos, while advocates hope that it would solve some of the problems facing the nation, such as low voter turnout and civic participation. February 2, 2004.  
In "Is Canada the mature nation the PM says it is?", the same author, John Ibbitson, then raises questions as to how politics would play out among the major parties with a full representation system in place. February 2, 2004

The Globe and Mail: "PR would have saved the PCs." This commentary advocates full representation in Canada as a way to increase the representation of minority parties and get more people out to vote. January 2, 2004.

Toronto Star: "Ministers may face $500 fines: Liberals explore new voting methods -- State your choice by phone or Internet?" Liberal party to create a Democratic Renewal Secretariat to explore fixed election dates and alternative voting methods, including proportional representation. December 9, 2003.

Toronto Star: "McGuinty likes citizens assembly initiative, B.C. premier says." Praise for the British Columbian Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform, which is looking into changing the province's electoral system. November 24, 2003.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: Liberals want to change the way Quebec votes. The Liberal Party, which has majority control in Quebecs provincial government, have announced that it plans to introduce some form of full representation in time for the next election. The latest election was on April 14, 2003, and the next election doesnt have a definitive date, as election terms are not fixed in Canada. July 11, 2003.

Elm Street Magazine: The Unjust Society. A womens group in Canada discusses full representation (proportional representation) as a means to allow more equal representation for women in Parliament, and discuss the state of the womens movement in general. July 3, 2003.

CBC News Online: Is proportional representation really on the agenda? Article discusses various possible motivations for Quebec government to move towards full representation. Multiple parties are interested, although not committed, and it is not clear how strong of a full representation system will be put in place if there is a change. April 1, 2003.

Hailfax Daily News : Handicapping the Tories. Profiles of candidates vying for leadership of the Canadian Progressive Conservative party. David Orchard, a long-shot candidate, supports full representation. February 7, 2003.

Leader-Post: Nystrom and Proctor get nod for critic posts. Full representation is a top priority of the newly appointed justice critic for the New Democratic Party of Canada, Lorne Nystrom. February 5, 2003.

CBC News Online : Layton vows to put debate back in Canadian politics. Jack Layton, the recently elected leader of the Canadian federal New Democratic Party, calls for a national referendum on full representation. January 26, 2003.

CBC New Brunswick : Prof lobbies for electoral change . Article discusses the support of political scientists for full representation in Canada. January 23, 2003

Fair Vote Canada: Political scientists from 34 Canadian universities call for national referendum on electoral reform. 103 political scientists from 34 universities have endorsed a call for a public consultation and public referendum process that would enable Canada to switch to full representation (proportional representaion). January 22, 2003.

Globe and Mail : NDP risks stagnating, Nystrom warns . Lorne Nystrom, a candidate for the Canadian New Democratic Party, criticizes his opponents. All candidates, however, are in favor of full representation.

The Vancouver Sun: NDP front-runner promises referendum. Jack Layton, the frontrunner for New Democratic Party leadership in Canada, promises to make a referedum on full representation a condition of joining into a coalition government. Includes a table illustrating how the distribution of seats in Parliament would have been different with full representation. January 6, 2003.

China (Hong Kong)
Try these links for background information on Hong Kong politics and elections: Hong Kong, Psephos: Hong Kong

The Straits Times: "Pro-democracy vs pro-China in Legco polls." Elections for the Hong Kong Legislative Council (Legco) will occur this year, using a full representation system where voters choose their preferred party. According to this article, the elections are already heating up, as certain political parties are being criticized for their support of the Beijing government. January 22, 2004.

Try these links for background information on Estonian politics and elections: Estonia, Wikipedia: Estonia

VOA News: Estonia Holds Parliamentary Elections . Article written on the day of the March elections to Estonias Parliament. The result was that a coalition government was formed between Res Publica, Reform, and Rahvaliit. March 2, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Fijian politics and elections: Fiji, Wikipedia: Fiji

Reuters: Fijian verdict welcomed. The Supreme Court of the Fiji Islands ruled that the Prime Minister must give proportional representation in his Cabinet to all parties with more than 10 seats in the House of Representatives. This means that the main opposition party, the Fiji Labour Party, will gain seats in the cabinet. The Fiji Labour party has 27 of the 71 seats in the House, the Soqosoqo Duavata ni Lewenivanua (SDL) / United Fiji Party has 32, the Matanitu Vanua (MV) / Conservative Alliance Party has 6, and the rest of the seats are held by smaller parties. At present the government is formed by a coalition of SDL and MV. July 19, 2003.

France (Corsica)
Try this links for background information on Corsican politics and elections: Widipedia: Corsica

The Guardian : Corsicans say No to home rule . A plan for giving Corsica greater political autonomy from France was submitted to the Corsican people by referendum. It was narrowly defeated, by 51% to 49%. The plan would have created a single Corsican assembly elected by full representation. July 7, 2003.

Try these links for background information on politics and elections in Ghana: Ghana, Wikipedia: Ghana

GhanaWeb: "Go to the Court for redress - Papa Owusu-Ankomah." Speaking on the general theme of 'National Integration," Professor John Kaburise of the University for Development Studies advocates proportional representation in Ghana. November 21, 2003.

Ghanaian Chronicle, Ghana: MP pushes for proportional representation. A Member of Parliament in Ghana suggested that the Parliament should change to a full representation (proportional representation) system, from the current plurality system. Also, different formulas are discussed for adding seats to the Parliament to cope with Ghanas growing population. February 27, 2003.


Try these links for background information on Greek politics and elections: Greece, Wikipedia: Greece

Kathimerini: An old favorite. Editorial suggests political motivations behind the Greek PASOK partys attention to possible changes in the electoral law. The PASOK party controls a majority of the seats in the Greek Parliament. July 28, 2003.

Kathimerini: With what political compass... Discussion of the political factors involved in a likely change in the Greek electoral system. July 21, 2003.

ERT, Athens: Simitis aims for electoral reform . In Greece, the socialist PASOK party has put forward plans for electoral reform. They have majority control in Parliament, with 158 of 300 seats. The main opposition is the conservative New Democracy party, with 125 seats. The Communist KKE party have 11 seats, the socialist Coalition of the Left and Progress has 6 seats, and the socialist DIKKI party has no seats at present. July 19, 2003.

Kathimerini: A clash before elections. Debates between parties over possible changes to the electoral law, including a change in Greeks system of full representation. To make the article more clear, the socialist PASOK party has majority control in Parliament, with 158 of 300 seats. The main opposition is the conservative New Democracy party, with 125 seats. The Communist KKE party have 11 seats, the socialist Coalition of the Left and Progress has 6 seats, and the socialist DIKKI party has no seats at present. July 15, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Indian politics and elections: India, Wikipedia: India

The Hindu: Jaitly: Religious quotas dangerous. The ruling party in India has rejected a bill which would introduce full representation (proportional representation), as well as reserve seats in Parliament for certain minority groups. July 25, 2003.

Peoples Democracy: Women Demand Quota, Police Arrest Them . For years, the Indian government has been delaying action on a bill to reserve seats for women in parliament and state assemblies. June 22, 2003.

Oherlad: Defections And Proportional Representation. Editorial argues that India should change their election system from plurality to full representation. The author believes that full representation will lead to more issues-based campaigns, less nepotism, less distortion of seats per votes, and greater minority representation. May 28, 2003

Try these links for background information on Indonesian politics and elections: Indonesia, Indonesia, Psephos: Indonesia

The Jakarta Post: "A guide to the 2004 elections." Indonesia will go through two national elections this year, including its first direct presidential vote ever. Due to criticism of corruption and a lack of responsiveness in the government, electoral reform has been taking place, particularly in the presidential election system. Legislatures will continue to be elected using full representation, but some districts will be broken up in order to have representatives that more closely reflect their constituents. January 26, 2004.

Try these links for background information on Irish politics and elections: Ireland, Wikipedia: Ireland "Constituency Boundary revisions favour large parties - Greens." The Green Party has asserted that the proposed move to smaller constituencies will make it more difficult for small parties and independents to win seats in the Parliament. January 8, 2004.

Irish Examiner: Lets have one constituency for European polls. Because new countries are being added to the European Parliament, the share of seats for countries already represented in the Parliament, such as Ireland, is decreasing, and therefore constituent boundaries will have to be redrawn. The author of this piece suggests that instead of drawing a new set of boundaries, Ireland should elect EP members as a single national constituency, using full representation, of course. July 18, 2003.

U.TV: Sinn Fein in plea over Senate elections . The Sinn Fein party is advocating that the Irish Senate (the Seanad) be directly elected by universal suffrage. July 15, 2003.

Economic and Social Research Council: Devolution remains popular despite problems with Good Friday Agreement. The Economic and Social Research Council organized a conference on devolution in Northern Ireland. Research was presented showing that many people in Ireland support devolution over other options. Another paper was presented, arguing that a mixed member proportional system based on instant runoff voting might be preferable to choice voting. March 4, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Israeli politics and elections: Israel, Israel

Haaretz: Was return to single ballot a mistake? Israel has changed from a twin ballot system to a single ballot system. In the twin ballot system, voters placed one vote for the Prime Minister, and a separate vote for a party list. The single ballot system discards the direct vote for the Prime Minister, but maintains the party list vote, which is the full representation component of the election. January 29, 2003.

TIME: Israel Votes, But Little Will Change . The author criticizes Israels party list system of full representation, and discusses the balance of power in the Knesset, which he views as leading to a stagnant continuance of current deadlock. January 27, 2003.

Israel Insider : An Israeli democrats lament . Editorial attacking the Israeli government and its system of full representation. January 27, 2003

Try these links for background information on Italian politics and elections: Italy, Wikipedia: Italy

Agenzia Giornalistica Italia: "Reforms: Mazzella proposing new format for ruling parties." Italy's Minister of Public Administration suggests electoral reform, to include full representation in the parliament. February 7, 2004.

Agenzia Giornalistica Italia: Reform: Follini, we agree with premiership . Comments from Italian Christian Democratic Union secretary Marco Follini on the possibility of further electoral system reform. July 7, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Italian politics and elections: Japan, Psephos: Japan, Wikipedia: Japan

The Japan Times: "A place for 'judicial positivism'." This editorial analyzes the recent Supreme Court ruling in favor of the current electoral system. January 20, 2004.

Asahi Shimbun: "Balance vote disparity." This editorial criticizes a recent ruling of the Supreme Court to uphold the current electoral process, arguing that there need to be reform in order to minimize "vote-weight gaps" and improve the system. January 16, 2004.

The Japan Times: "Upper House electoral system upheld." Japan's Supreme Court ruled that the full representation system used to elect members of the Upper House is consistent with their constitution. January 15, 2004. 
For more information on this case, see the Asahi Shimbun article "Weighty Issue: Top court upholds election." January 15, 2004.

The Japan Times: "Reliance on Komeito reflects LDP decline." Recent elections reveal the workings of coalitions among the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and New Komeito and Soka Gakkai -- both third parties. In the November House of Representatives elections, New Komeito endorsed LDP candidates running in single-seat districts in exchange for LDP support of New Komeito members in proportional representation elections. January 3, 2004.

Daily Yomiuri: "New Komeito tactics alarm LDP." Article discusses tactics used by political parties in Japan's proportional representation electoral system. December 10, 2003.

The Asahi Shimbun: Lost decade of politics . Editorial discusses the state of politics in Japan. August 9, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Kenyan politics and elections: Kenya, Wikipedia: Kenya

Daily Nation: "The past returns to haunt delegates." The Constitutional Conference in Kenya sparks debate over the country's electoral system. One participant, Gibson Kamau Kuria, laments the lack of full representation. January 23, 2004.

The East African Standard: The Disabled Must Be Visible By Law. Editorial advocating more specific standards for people with disabilities to be represented in the Kenyan Parliament. February 2, 2003.

The East African Standard: Distribution of parliamentary seats is unfair . Editorial pointing out the severe disparities of representation in Kenya, such that electoral districts with very different population sizes are represented by the same number of seats in parliament. December 25, 2002.

The East African Standard (Nairobi): Law Could Ease Land Rows. The author makes the case for the proposed draft Constitution in Kenya, which includes regional devolution of powers within a unitary state, bicameralism, and a mixed member system of full representation. He explains why this is needed to help resolve tension between different minority and majority groups within Kenya. November 23, 2002.

Korea (South)
Try this link for background information on South Korean politics and elections: South Korea

Korea Herald: "Odd path to equality." Korea's National Assembly's Special Political Reform Committee has proposed establishing 26 additional constituencies where only women will run for legislative seats. February 17, 2004.

Korea Herald: "Panel passes election revision bills, but far from reaching compromise on other changes." A political reform committee has come to a consensus on three electoral changes, including a reduction in the number of parliamentary seats elected using full representation and requiring half of these positions to be occupied by women. February 10, 2004. 

The Dong-A Ilbo: "New Trend for General Election - Women Rule Over." This article describes the current scramble by political parties to find women candidates.  The situation arose after all parties committed themselves to allocating half of their full representation seats in the legislature to women. January 27, 2004.

Korea Times: "Electoral Reform Panel Back in Action."  After some delay, the Special Committee for Political Reform is set to reconvene in the hopes that lawmakers can come to an agreement on a long-awaited electoral reform bill. January 11, 2004.

Korea Times: "Hopes for Electoral Reforms Dashed." Political parties are unlikely to come to an agreement on electoral reform this legislative cycle. December 29, 2003.

Korea Herald: "Reform panel to finalize plans today." A special committee on political reform in the National Assembly will discuss and vote on a plan to change the electoral system. Full representaion is being considered and is a particularly contentious issue. December 22, 2003.

Korea Herald: "Roh sends Assembly political reform plan." President Roh's plan for electoral reform supports full representation. December 18, 2003.

JoongAng Daily: "Roh presents reform plan ." President Roh Moo-hyun is proposing electoral reform in South Korea, to include full representation. December 18, 2003.

Korea Times: "FTC Alerts Chaebol Again Over Corporate Governance System." A proposed plan for market reform calls for using cumulative voting in corporations to strengthen the voice of small shareholders. October 19, 2003.

Korea Herald: A gender-equal society. Editorial in favor of political and economic reforms to help South Korean women, including raising the required ratio of female candidates for the legislature. July 7, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Lebanese politics and elections: Lebanon, Wikipedia: Lebanon

Daily Star, Lebanon: Iraqs governing council: foul or fair?" The author, a former Jordanian ambassador, believes that the Iraqi governing council should be based on full representation rather than a rigidly divisive system based on ethnic and religious groupings. August 8, 2003.

Monday Morning, Lebanon: Lebanon still in thrall to the sectarian mindset. Interview with a member of the Lebanese Parliament. He critiques the government as being sectarian and elitist, and names full representation as a possible solution. July 22, 2003.

Daily Star, Lebanon: Karami says small election district best. A proposal has been made to elect Parliamentary seats in Lebanon using full representation. In this article, a Lebanese Member of Parliament registers his opinion against full representation. Currently, Lebanon uses a form of at-large plurality voting known as party block, where a party winning a plurality of the votes in a multiple member district receives all the seats in that district.

Lethoso "Lethoso: Focus on Challenges to Multiparty Democracy." Although democracy remains fragile in Lethoso according to a South African think tank, recent electoral reforms, including moving from a winner-take-all to full representation system, have reduced the probability of election-time unrest. January 15, 2004.

Try these links for background information on Liberian politics and elections: Liberia, Wikipedia: Liberia

Inter Press Service : Taylor Seeks Re-Election, Despite Growing Opposition . Article that discusses the struggle for peace and democracy in war-torn Liberia. January 30, 2003

Try these links for background information on Maltese politics and elections: Malta, Wikipedia: Malta

Di-ve News: Pro-EU alliance emerging. Article discusses the possible formation of an alliance between parties in Malta who are generally at odds with each other, for the purpose of a campaign to enter the European Union. January 8, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Mexican politics and elections: Instituto Federal Mexico, Wikipedia: Mexico

Elections to Mexico's Congress: A brief description of the voting systems used to elect Mexico's two houses of Congress. See also Results of Chamber of Deputies Election 2003, a table which analyzes the results in terms of votes and seats won by each party.

Republic Mexico City Bureau: Mexico's voters deal Fox setback, deny him a majority in Congress. Mexican President Vicente Fox is a member of the National Action Party (PAN), which suffered losses in the Chamber of Deputies election, weakening his position. The strongest party in Congress is the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the party which controlled Mexico from the time of the revolution in 1910-1917 until the elections in 2000 where Fox became President. July 7, 2003.

Associated Press: Campaigning north of the border. Six of the candidates running for Mexicos lower house of Congress are U.S. residents, although they are Mexican citizens. Such candidates are spending time campaigning for support in the U.S., pledging to gain a voice in Congress for Mexican citizens living in America. Although millions of U.S. residents are technically eligible to vote in Mexican elections, they are not allowed an absentee ballot, and so must travel to Mexico to vote. Mexico uses a mixed member system of full representation. June 18, 2003.

Try these links for background information on politics and elections in Monaco: Monaco, Wikipedia: Monaco

Associated Press : Monaco Votes For Parliamentary Seats . Article written on the day of the 2003 elections, in which the opposition party won 21 of 24 seats from what had been the ruling party for decades. February 9, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Namibian politics and elections: Namibia, Wikipedia: Namibia

The Namibian: Debate starting on amendments to Electoral Act. Although the ward system of single member districts has been abolished in favor of full representation through the Local Authorities Amendment Act, single member districts still remain a part of the Electoral Act. An amendment is proposed to remove them from the text of the electoral act as well. June 19, 2003.

The Namibian: SWAPO Members Want Ward System. Article discusses the results of a survey by the Institute for Public Policy Research. SWAPO stats for South West African Peoples Organization, and it is the strongest political party in Namibia by far. Although SWAPO officials chose a full representation system for local government in Namibia, the survey found that most supporters of the SWAPO party would have prepared a single member district system. February 27, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Nepalese politics and elections: Nepal, Wikipedia: Nepal

The Guardian: Maoist emerges to claim Nepal. Article about the Nepalese rebels, who are asking for multi-party democracy and full representation (proportional representation). May 29, 2003.

Peoples Review, Nepal: Dr. Johan Galtung suggests for revision of constitution. A peace studies professor suggests full representation as part of a peace plan for Nepal, which has been engaged in a civil war since 1996. May 22-28, 2003.

New Zealand
The Electoral Reform Coalition advocates full representation in New Zealand.  Also, try these links for background information on politics and elections in New Zealand: New Zealand, Wikipedia: New Zealand

New Zealand Herald: "Time to take confusion out of voting." This editorial supports the desire of retiring Electoral Commission chief to have a single, independent agency responsible for all electoral issues. January 16, 2004.

Scoop: "Government confirms changes to DHB elections." New Zealand Citizens will now be able to elect all members of their District Health Board using single transferable voting. December 17, 2003.

The National Business Review, New Zealand: "Poll: Electors yet to be won over by the merits of MMP." A poll taken over seven years indicates that New Zealand citizens are evenly split when it comes to favoring the former first-past-the-post system or their own mixed member proportional representation system. December 10, 2003.

Scoop: "MMP electoral system is working well." A Progressive Party press release applauds the New Zealand mixed member proportional representation system. December 1, 2003.

Australian Broadcasting Company Online: New Zealand debates whether to scrap exclusive Maori Parliamentary seats. Debate in New Zealand over whether to abolish the seats in Parliament reserved for Maori members. Some have suggested that New Zealands Mixed Member Proportional system of full representation should be able to provide fair representation for the Maori people in itself. May 25, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Pakistani politics and elections: Pakistan, Wikipedia: Pakistan

Daily Times, Pakistan: 35 in race for 22 seats from NWFP . Article provides background on Pakistans Senate, which is elected by the members of the Provincial Assemblies using choice voting. It also lists the candidates who are running. February 23, 2003.

Hi Pakistan: Bargaining for Senate seats in full swing. Members of the Pakistan Senate are elected by the members of the provincial assemblies assemblies (who number 168 in total), using choice voting. This article discusses the different voting power of each political party, in terms of how many Senators they will be able to elect on their own, and how many votes they will have left over to pool with other parties to elect further Senators. February 16, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Polish politics and elections: Poland, Wikipedia: Poland

Warsaw Business Journal: For sale: Euro seats. Editorial rails against the use of proportional representation in Poland, for elections to the Polish Sejm and the Polish members of the European Parliament. February 16, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Russian politics and elections: Russia, Wikipedia: Russia, Ace Project 

The Guardian: "Pro Kremlin Party Sweeps Russia Elections." Discusses the outcome of the recent Duma elections, in which the United Russia Party consolidated its power. December 8, 2003. USA today also printed a similar article.

CNN: "Background: Russian Election Primer." Describes the Russian electoral system.  December 8, 2003.

Radio Free Europe: Russia: Centrists Propose Changing Electoral Law. Article discusses a proposal by the powerful Unified Russia Party to raise the minimum threshold of votes that parties would need to gain seats in the parliament. If passed, such a measure would decrease the ability of smaller parties to participate in government. October 18, 2002.

Pravda: State Duma Speaker Favors 5 Percent Threshold for Parties in 2003 Parliamentary Elections. Brief news article. Duma speaker is opposed to changing minimum vote threshold for seats in Russian parliament before the 2003 elections. October 14, 2002.

Try these links for background information on South African politics and elections: Serbia, Wikipedia: Serbia

B92 News: "G17 Plus inter-party negotiations continue." As inter-party discussions occur, Social Democracy party proposes election legislation that would include full representation. September 9, 2003.

South Africa
Try these links for background information on South African politics and elections: South Africa, Wikipedia: South Africa

News24: Electoral system stays as is. An electoral task team has recommended that the 2004 elections take place according to the current party list system, but most of those on the team recommend that the system be changed for the 2009 elections. If the system is eventually changed, the new system, like the current one, will probably incorporate some form of full representation. March 5, 2003.

Business Day (Johannesburg): Marginalised Need Better Access to the Workings of Parliament. Discussing the State of the Nation address, the author praises South Africas system of full representation (proportional representation), but also feels that the government should go further in representing and granting access to the people of South Africa. February 26, 2003.

Business Day (Johannesburg): Party List System Needs to Change . Editorial supporting a possible change in South Africa from direct party list full representation to a system of mixed member proportional representation. January 9, 2003

Sunday Times, South Africa: ANC lashes out at IFP/DA on KZN poll. Conflict between political parties in the KwaZulu-Natal region of South Africa. Although the African National Congress party has a strong majority nationwide, the Inkatha Freedom Party leads the regional government in KwaZulu-Natal, and they have decided to call for early elections there, drawing criticism from the ANC. Floor-crossing, as used in the article, refers to a Member of Parliament voting differently from the rest of their party.

Sri Lanka
Try these links for background information on politics and elections in Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka, Wikipedia: Sri Lanka

Daily Mirror: "Sri Lanka's Electoral System: Bogy or asset?" Editorial by Dr. Chandra Dolawatte defends use of proportional representation in Sri Lanka. February 14, 2004.

Hindustan Times: "For Chandrika, ordering snap polls was an agonising decision." This article analyzes the political situation in Sri Lanka that lead up to President Kumaratunga's recent dissolving of parliament. February 9, 2004.

Sunday Observer: "Minority parties react to Electoral Reform Report." An electoral reform committee interim report advocates a mixed first-past-the-post and full representation system for Sri Lanka. Muslim leaders welcome the recommendation, while Tamil (particularly Northeast Tamil) leaders have some reservations and would like to see full representation as part of a package aimed at resolving 'the national ethnic problem'. February 1, 2004.

Daily News: "Select Committee on Electoral Reform recommends: Mixed PR and first-past-the-post systems." An interim report by the Committee on Electoral Reforms and endorsed by the major parties proposes using some full representation in Sri Lanka. January 24, 2004.

Daily Mirror: "President and Premier reach agreement." The President and Prime Minister of Sri Lanka recently came to an agreement concerning electoral reform for the nation. Changes will include full representation in parliamentary elections, to be used in conjunction with the first-past-the-post method. January 22, 2004.

Sri Lanka Daily News: "Peace beneficial, says majority." A recent survey by the Centre for Policy Alternatives indicates that a majority of Sri Lankans would support proportional representation based on ethnicity as a way to achieve peace in the nation. January 7, 2004.

Sri Lanka Daily News: PM initiates dialogue with party leaders : Sub-Committee for Electoral Reforms . A parliamentary committee is formed in Sri Lanka to look at possibilities for electoral system reform. Sri Lanka currently uses party list full representation. The committee will deliberate whether to retain the party list system, to return to plurality, or to introduce a mixed system. January 30, 2003.

Try these links for background information on Ugandan politics and elections: Uganda, Wikipedia: Uganda, Psephos: Uganda "Must the Winner Always Take All?" This column describes feelings of disenfranchisment that lead to low voter turnout as a result of the winner-take-all system. The author touts full representation as a way to ensure representation of the multiple parties emerging in Uganda's political sphere. February 4, 2004.

Try these links for background information on Ukrainian politics and elections: Wikipedia: Ukraine, Ukraine

The Russia Journal: "Ukraine to amend its Constitution." The Ukrainian parliament passed a bill that would initiate amendments to the constitution. Highlights of the bill include moving to indirect election of the president and adopting full representation in parliamentary elections. December 24, 2003.

UK (England and general UK)
The Electoral Reform Society is the leading organization working toward electoral reform in the UK. Also try these links for background information on politics and elections in the UK: United Kingdom, Wikipedia: United Kingdom "Hain backs alternative vote for Commons." Welsh Secretary and House of Commons Leader Peter Hain vows to support Instant Runoff Voting for single-member parliamentary districts. February 29, 2004.

Scunthorpe Telegraph: "What the proposals involve." This article discusses proposed plans for regional parliaments in the UK and explains what would happen with and without these models in place. January 20, 2004.

This Is Local London: "Mayoral election vote system prompts fears of confusion." A new website has been developed to offer information about London's full representation system to voters, journalists and electoral officers. October 15, 2003.

The Guardian: Away with these tribes . An interesting and intelligent editorial in favor of full representation (proportional representation) in Britain.  The author argues that retaining the plurality (first-past-the-post) system is the only thing that will allow a minority-supported, majority-opposed Conservative government to come to power in the future. August 1, 2003.<?XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />

The Herald : English regions can vote to copy Scotland: Assemblies plan will be decided by referendums . Referendums will be held in three areas of northern England to decide whether to create new local assemblies to take over powers from the central governments. If created, the new assemblies will use full representation. June 17, 2003.

The Guardian: Regional government around the world . English author compares the local governments of Canada, Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and Portugal. June 16, 2003.

The Guardian : Now the House of Lords will remain a laughing stock: any chance of reform has gone thanks to Blairs moment of madness . Editorial bemoaning the narrow failure of a measure in the British House of Commons, which would have changed the House of Lords into a directly elected body. The author advocates full representation. February 5, 2003.

The Guardian : PR on the backburner: Its a big idea whose time has not yet come . The author sympathizes with British Liberal Democrat leaders decision to focus on other policy agendas besides full representation. January 28, 2003.

The Guardian: Voting change would be fitting legacy, say campaigners. The director of Make Votes Count, a British full representation group, laments the death of full representation advocate Lord Jenkins, and discusses the possibilities for full representation in Britain in 2003. January 6, 2003.

UK (Northern Ireland)
Try these links for background information on Northern Irish politics and elections: Northern Northern Ireland,  and Ace Project.

New Zealand Herald: "Hard-liners victorious in Northern Ireland." Describes the results of the Northern Ireland Assembly elections. November 29, 2003.
See also Northern Ireland Elections web page.

BBC News: "NI - Making sense of the maths." Explanation of the electoral system in Northern Ireland. November 27, 2003.

Guardian Unlimited: "Q&A: the Northern Ireland elections." Nick McDermott explains the unique voting system which will be used in the Stormont assembly and executive elections. November 21, 2003.

UK (Scotland)
Try this link for background information on Scottish politics and elections: Scotland, Psephos: Scotland

The Scotsman: "How we Scots vote should be up to us." Margo MacDonald argues that the Scottish parliament (rather than Westminster) should decide on what the voting system should be. The piece also gives an overview of where the different parties stand on the issue of electoral reform. February 11, 2004.

The Herald: "Darling speeds up electoral reform plan." A commission is to be established to consider constituency boundaries for Scottish parliament and the potential impact of four different electoral models on civic life in Scotland. February 9, 2004.

The Scotsman: "Boundary changes 'will stifle Scottish democracy'." The Labour and Tory parties are being criticized for supporting proposals to decrease the number of members of parliament elected using the list system. Opponents claim that in backing this plan, they are attempting to take power away from the smaller parties. February 4, 2004.

The Scotsman on Sunday: "McConnell urged to change rules for PR voting." Opposition parties are urging First Minister Jack McConnell to make the planned full representation system fairer by allowing some constituencies to have five representatives and others to have just two. February 1, 2004.

The Scotsman: "Executive Advised to Make PR Vote Plans Fairer." Political parties are negotiating a full representation bill in Parliament. The STV working group has suggested that wards be represented by up to five ministers, which is supported by the Liberal Democrats but opposed by larger parties such as Labour, which favors three to four ministers per ward. January 28, 2004.

The Scotsman: "Electoral System Change 'Could Stop Extremist Parties'." Ken Ritchie of the Electoral Reform Society comments on the likely effects of full representation on the power of certain political parties in Scotland. January 20, 2004. See more details on the ERS website.

The Herald: "Labour MPs in talks on Holyrood poll plans." In a special meeting being held to discuss the voting system for parliament, former Scotland Office minister George Foulkes will advocate full representation in all constituencies. January 13, 2004

The Herald: "Foulkes wants bigger role for PR at Holyrood." Former deputy secretary of state George Foulkes proposes reforming the system for electing MSPs by switching entirely to full representation. January 7, 2004.

Sunday Herald: McConnell: 50% of councilors must be women. In addition to changing to choice voting for local council elections in Scotland, First Minister Jack McConnell and other Scottish Labor Party leaders intend to reserve nearly half of the council seats for women. Most local councilors in the Scottish Labour party are male. However, a 28-22 majority of the Members of the Scottish Parliament from the Scottish Labour party are female. This is because the Scottish Parliament already has a rule about dividing nominations for equally winnable seats between men and women. June 1, 2003.

The Herald : Marwick on attack after PR bill defeated . In Scotland, both the Conservative Party and the Labor party have prepared bills for using choice voting in Scottish local elections. However, the Conservative bill was ready for vote in February, but the Labor bill will not be ready until after the elections in May. Although the Liberal Democrats are core supporters of choice voting, they voted against the February bill, drawing heavy criticism from the National party. February 7, 2003.

BBC News : Council vote changes outlined: The bill would change how councillors are elected . The Scottish Executive has published a draft bill that would change the method of electing local government from plurality to choice voting. However, the Scottish National Party, who are in favor of using STV, are critical of the fact that the draft bill is being published too late to be considered before the next elections. February 4, 2003.

A draft copy of the Local Governance (Scotland) Bill is available in PDF . If passed, the bill will establish choice voting for Scottish local elections, effective in time for the next round of elections.

UK (Wales)
Try these links for background on Welsh politics: National Assembly for Wales website , Wales, Psephos: Wales

IC North Wales: "Let Assembly make laws, says minister." Environment Minister Carwyn Jones pushes for greater law-making powers for the Welsh Assembly. He also calls for reforms, including increasing the number of representatives and doing away with the current full representation model. January 26, 2004.

The Western Mail: Assembly rejects poll changes . Although an independent commission created by a past government recommended choice voting for Welsh council elections, the current government has rejected the recommendation. July 17, 2003.

IC Wales : Hain opposed to new Assembly powers . Peter Hain speaks against devolving more power to the Welsh Assembly. Hain is also opposed to full representation, which is used in Assembly elections. July 7, 2003.

The Guardian: Scargill to stand in Welsh elections. Article discusses the candidacy of Arthur Scargill for the Welsh assembly, which is elected by a form of mixed member proportional representation (or additional member system, as it is known in the UK). Arthur Scargill is running for the Socialist Labour party. February 12, 2003.

The Western Mail : Ron Davies warns Labour of Plaid Victory . Former Welsh Secretary states that the Labour party needs to present an inspiring platform in order to retain control of the Welsh Assembly. February 10, 2003.

US (Puerto Rico)
Try these links for background information on Puerto Rican politics and elections: Elections in Puerto Rico, Comisin Estatal de Elecciones de Puerto Puerto Rico, Wikipedia: Puerto Rico

Elections to Puerto Rico's Legislative Assembly: A brief description of the voting systems used to elect the two houses of Puerto Rico's Legislative Assembly.

Full Representation and Proportionality in Puerto Rico: Text and table analyzing the results of the November 2000 Legislative Assembly election in terms of votes and seats won by each party. Compares the proportionality of the single non-transferable vote (SNTV) benches in the assembly to the single member district plurality benches, and finds a dramatically higher disproportionality in the plurality benches.


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