A Better Way to Run a Runoff
By Caleb Kleppner
April 19, 2000
Texans are known as practical voters and frugal taxpayers. But
they just paid for an expensive and needless election.
That's because Texas had a statewide runoff election next week for the
Democratic nomination for U.S. senator. It cost taxpayers about $10 million on
top of the cost of last monthÝs primary. If you think there has to a more
efficient and less expensive way to nominate a candidate, youÝre right.
It's called an instant runoff, and it achieves the goal of the runoff primary
˝ a nominee supported by a majority of the voters ˝ in a single election.
This saves the taxpayers the cost of the election. It's easier for voters,
who only have to turn out once, and it's easier for candidates, who only have to
raise funds and campaign in one election.
It's also quite simple. When voters go to the polls, they cast a vote for
their favorite candidate, but they also specify their runoff choice. If their
favorite candidate gets eliminated, they get to support their next favorite in
the "instant" runoff. Voters specify these choices by ranking
candidates in order of choice: first choice, second choice, third choice.
Imagine that the Democratic primary had been a three-way race between Gene
Kelly, Charles Gandy, and Don Clark. Since no one received an outright majority
of the first choices, the instant runoff takes place. The candidate with the
least number of votes, Clark, is eliminated, just like in the actual runoff.
Kelly and Gandy supporters get to continue to support their favorite
candidate, but Clark supporters still can support their runoff choice, either
Kelly or Gandy. The key to the instant runoff is that the rankings allow all
voters, regardless of whom they supported as a first choice, to express a
preference between Kelly and Gandy.
In the instant runoff, each voter's ballot counts for whichever candidate ˝
Kelly or Gandy ˝ was ranked higher on the ballot, and this produces a majority
winner in a single election.
In addition to saving taxpayers millions of dollars in election costs, the
instant runoff has three other important benefits:
- It reduces negative campaigning and
promotes reaching out to more voters because candidates know
that winning may require being the runoff choice of their
- It fulfills one goal of campaign finance
reform because candidates don't need to raise more money for a
- It maximizes voter turnout since voters
don't have to return to the polls for special runoff
Because of these benefits, legislation for instant runoffs has recently been
introduced in 5 states and passed in 2 localities. A charter review commission
in Austin supported the use of instant runoffs in local elections, and the city
council may place a charter amendment for instant runoffs on the ballot in
To save millions of tax dollars, reduce
fundraising demands on candidates and avoid unnecessary runoff
elections, the legislature should consider enacting instant runoffs
for primary elections and allowing cities to use them for local