Flores

Court Cases

Abrams v. Johnson , 521 U.S. 74, 79 (1997).

Allen v. Board of Elections , 393 U.S. 544, 569 (1969).

Baker v. Carr , 369 U.S. 186 (1962).

Bush v. Vera , 517 U.S. 952 (1996).

Cane v. Worcester County , 847 F. Supp. 369 (D. Md. 1994).

City of Mobile v. Bolden , 446 U.S. 55 (1980).

Colegrove v. Green , 328 U.S. 549 (1946).

Gray v. Sanders , 372 U.S. 368 (1963).

Holder v. Hall , 114 S. Ct. 2581 (1994).

Hunt v. Cromartie (1999).

Johnson v. Miller , 922 F. Supp. 1552 (1995).

Johnson v. Miller , 922 F. Supp. 1556 (1995).

Lawyer v. Department of Justice , 117 S. Ct. 2186 (1997).

Lucas v. Forty-forth General Assembly of Colorado , 377 U.S. 713, 750 (1964).

Miller v. Johnson , 515 U.S. 900 (1995).

New State Ice Co. v. Liebmann , 285 U.S. 262, 311 (1932).

Shaw v. Hunt , 517 U.S. 899 (1996).

Shaw v. Reno , 509 U.S. 630 (1993).

Shaw v. Reno , 861 F. Supp. 408, 474 (1994).

Smith v. Allwright , 321 U.S. 649 (1944).

Terry v. Adams , 345 U.S. 461 (1953).

Thornburg v. Gingles , 478 U.S. 30 (1986).

Wesberry v. Sanders , 376 U.S. 1, 18 (1964).

White v. Regester , 412 U.S. 755 (1973).

Wood v. Broom , 287 U.S. 1 (1932).

Wright v. Rockefeller , 376 U.S. 52, 66 (1964).

Selected Bibliography

Amy, Douglas. 1993. Real Choices, New Voices . New York: Columbia University Press.

----------. žProportional Representation: A New Option for Local Elections.Ó National Civic Review , Summer, 1993, pp. 275-281.

Anderson, John. žA Better Approach to Boosting Minority Representation?Ó The Christian Science Monitor , July 6, 1993, p. 18

Applebome, Peter. žGuinier Ideas, Once Seen as Odd, Now Get Serious Study.Ó The New York Times , April 3, 1994, p. 5.

Aspin, Larry T., and William K. Hall. 1996. žCumulative Voting and Minority Candidates: An Analysis of the 1991 Peoria City Council Elections.Ó American Review Policy 17: 225.

Blumstein, James F. 1983. žDefining and Proving Race Discrimination Perspectives on the Purpose vs. Results Approach from the Voting Rights Act.Ó Virginia Law Review 69: 633.

Briffault, Richard. 1995. žBook Review: Lani Guinier and the Dilemmas of American Democracy.Ó Columbia Law Review 95: 418-472.

Brischetto, Robert. žCumulative Voting as an Alternative to Districting: An Exit Survey of Sixteen Texas Communities.Ó National Civic Review , Fall-Winter, 1995, pp. 347-354.

Burton, Orville Vernon, Terence R. Finnegan, Peyton McCrary, and James W. Loewen. 1994. žSouth Carolina.Ó In Quiet Revolution in the South , eds. Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Celler, Emanuel. 1952. žCongressional ApportionmentůPast, Present, and Future.Ó Law and Contemporary Problems 17: 268-275.

Congressional Globe . 1842. 27th Congress, Second Session, Volume 11, Part I.

----------. 1842. 27th Congress, Second Session, Volume 11, Appendix.

----------. 1862. 37th Congress, Second Session, Part IV.

Congressional Quarterly. 1994. Guide to US Elections . Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.

Congressional Quarterly Almanac . 1965. 89th Congress, 1st Session, Volume XXI. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.

----------. 1967. 90th Congress, 1st Session, Volume XXIII. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.

Congressional Record . 1965. 89th Congress, First Session, Volume 111, Part IV (Mar. 16), 5080-5100.

----------. 1967. 90th Congress, First Session, Volume 113, Part XXV (Nov. 8), 31718-31720; (Nov. 28), 34032-34039; (Nov. 30), 34364-34370.

Chandler Davidson. 1992. žThe Voting Rights Act: A Brief History.Ó In Controversies in Minority Voting , eds. Bernard Grofman and Chandler Davidson. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

----------. 1994. žThe Recent Evolution of Voting Rights Law Affecting Racial and Language Minorities.Ó In Quiet Revolution in the South , eds. Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Davidson, Chandler and Bernard Grofman, eds. 1994a. Quiet Revolution in the South . Princeton: Princeton University Press.

----------. 1994b. žEditors Introduction.Ó In Quiet Revolution in the South , eds. Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Days, Drew S. III. 1994. žSection 5 and the Role of the Justice Department.Ó In Controversies in Minority Voting , eds. Bernard Grofman and Chandler Davidson. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Dixon, Robert G., Jr. 1968. Democratic Representation: Reapportionment in Law and Politics . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Editorial. žA Route to Fairer Voting.Ó USA Today , June 30, 1995, p. 12A.

Editorial. žBetter Politics from an Old Idea.Ó Chicago Tribune , May 30, 1995, op-ed page.

Engstrom, Richard L. 1993. žThe Single Transferable Vote: An Alternative Remedy for Minority Vote Dilution.Ó University of San Francisco Law Review 27: 781-807.

Engstrom, Richard L. and Charles Barrilleaux. žNative Americans and Cumulative Voting: The Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux.Ó Social Science Quarterly , June, 1991, pp. 388.

Engstrom, Richard L., Delbert A. Taebel, and Richard L. Cole. 1989. žCumulative Voting as a Remedy for Minority Vote Dilution: The Case of Alamogordo, New Mexico.Ó Journal of Law and Politics 5: 469-497.

Engstrom, Richard L., Stanley A. Halpin, Jr., Jean A. Hill, and Victoria M. Caridas-Butterworth. 1994. žLouisiana.Ó In Quiet Revolution in the South , eds. Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Farrand, Max, ed. 1911-1937. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 . New Haven: Yale University Press.

Goldinger, Carolyn, ed. 1991. Jigsaw Politics: Shaping the House After the 1990 Census . Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.

Grahman, Hugh Davis. 1992. žVoting Rights and the American Regulatory State.Ó In Controversies in Minority Voting , eds. Bernard Grofman and Chandler Davidson. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Grofman, Bernard and Chandler Davidson, eds. 1992. Controversies in Minority Voting . Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Guinier, Lani. 1991. žThe Triumph of Tokenism: The Voting Rights Act and the Theory of Black Electoral Success.Ó Michigan Law Review 89: 1077-1154.

----------. 1993. žThe Representation of Minority Interests: The Question of Single-Member Districts.Ó Cardozo Law Review 14: 1135-1174.

----------. 1994. The Tyranny of the Majority: Fundamental Fairness in Representative Democracy . New York: Martin Kessler Books.

Hertzberg, Hendrik. žAlong Racial Lines.Ó The New Yorker , April 4, 1994, p. 7.

Hill, Stephen. žA Voting Rights Act at War with Itself.Ó Boston Review , March/April 1998. http://www-polisci.mit.edu/bostonreview/BR23.1/.

Karlan, Pamela. žA Bigger Picture.Ó Boston Review , March/April 1998. http://bostonreview.mit.edu/BR23.1/Karlan.html.

----------. 1999. Personal interview, March 29.

Kousser, J. Morgan. 1999. Colorblind Injustice . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Kramnick, Isaac, ed. 1987. The Federalist Papers . New York: Penguin Books.

Kull, Andrew. 1992. The Color-Blind Constitution . Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Landsberg, Brian K. 1992. žRace and the Rehnquist Court.Ó Tulane Law Review 66: 1267.

Lane, Robert E. 1959. Political Life: Why People Get Involved in Politics? Glencoe: Free Press of Glencoe.

Lijphart, Arend and Bernard Grofman, eds. 1984. Choosing an Electoral System . New York: Praeger Special Studies.

Martis, Kenneth C. 1995. žDistricts.Ó In The Encyclopedia of the United States Congress , eds. Donald C. Bacon, et al. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Mast, Tory. 1998. žHistory of Single Member Districts for Congress.Ó http://www.igc.org/cvd/cvd_reports/1995/chp2/mast.htm.

McCrary, Peyton, Jerome A. Gray, Edward Still, and Huey L. Perry. 1994. žAlabama.Ó In Quiet Revolution in the South , eds. Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

McDonald, Laughlin. 1992. žThe 1982 Amendments of Section 2 and Minority Representation.Ó In Controversies in Minority Voting , eds. Bernard Grofman and Chandler Davidson. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

McDonald, Laughlin, Michael B. Binford, and Ken Johnson. 1994. žGeorgia.Ó In Quiet Revolution in the South , eds. Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

McKinney, Cynthia. žA Democracy Voters Can Be Proud Of.Ó The Progressive Populist , April 1996. 

Moore, John, ed. 1994. žReapportionment and Redistricting.Ó In Guide to US Elections . Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.

Steven J. Mulroy. 1998. žThe Way Out: A Legal Standard for Imposing Alternative Electoral Systems as Voting Rights Remedies.Ó Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 33: 333-380.

OŪRourke, Timothy G. 1992. žThe 1982 Amendments and the Voting Rights Paradox.Ó In Controversies in Minority Voting , eds. Bernard Grofman and Chandler Davidson. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Parker, Frank. 1990. Black Votes Count: Political Empowerment in Mississippi After 1965 . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Parker, Frank R., David C. Colby, and Minion K. C. Morrison. 1994. žMississippi.Ó In Quiet Revolution in the South , eds. Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Paschal, Joel Francis. 1952. žThe House of Representatives: ŽGrand Depository of the Democratic PrincipleŪ?Ó Law and Contemporary Problems 17: 276-289.

Pildes, Richard H., and Kristen A. Donoghue. 1995. žCumulative Voting in the United States.Ó University of Chicago Legal Forum 1995: 241-312.

Pildes, Richard H. and Richard G. Niemi. 1993. žExpressive Harms, ŽBizarre Districts,Ū and Voting Rights: Evaluating Election-District Appearances After Shaw v. Reno.Ó Michigan Law Review 92: 101-205.

Pillsbury, George. žP.R. and Vote Turnout: The Case of Cambridge, Massachusetts.Ó National Civic Review , Spring, 1995, pp. 164-166.

Pitkin, Hannah. 1967. The Concept of Representation . Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rae, Douglas W. 1971. The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws . New Haven: Yale University Press.

Raspberry, William. žThe Balkanization of America.Ó The Washington Post , July 7, 1995, p. A21.

Reed, Judith. 1992. žOf Boroughs, Boundaries and Bullwinkles: The Limitations of Single-Member Districts in a Multiracial Context.Ó Fordham Urban Law Journal : 759.

Richie, Rob. žChoice Voting vs. Cumulative Voting: Choice Voting is the Better System for Local Government.Ó

Rosenfeld, Michael. 1985. žAffirmative Action, Justice, and Equalities: A Philosophical and Constitutional Appraisal.Ó Ohio State Law Journal 46: 845.

Rosenkranz, E. Joshua. žSolving the Race Problem.Ó Boston Review , March/April 1998. http://www-polisci.mit.edu/bostonreview/BR23.1/.

Rutland, Robert, ed. 1984. The Papers of James Madison . Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Schmeckebier, Lawrence F. 1941. Congressional Apportionment . Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Schuman, Howard, Charlotte Steeth, Lawrence Bobo, and Maria Krysan. 1997. Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations . Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Shields, Currin V., ed. 1958. Considerations on Representative Government . New York: Liberal Arts Press.

Swain, Carol M. 1993. Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress . Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Thernstrom, Abigail. 1987. Whose Votes Count? Affirmative Action and Minority Voting Rights . Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Van Biema, David. žOne Person, Seven Votes.Ó Time , April 25, 1994, p. 42.

Watt, Melvin R., Jr. 1999. Dear Colleague Letter, accompanying StatesŪ Choice of Voting Systems Act.

Weaver, Leon. 1984. žSemi-Proportional and Proportional Representation Systems in the United States.Ó In Choosing an Electoral System , eds. Arend Lijphart and Bernard Grofman. New York: Praeger Special Studies.

Weaver, Leon and Judith Baum. 1992. žProportional Representation on New York City Community School Boards.Ó In United States Electoral Systems: Their Impact on Women and Minorities , eds. Wilma Rule and Joseph Zimmerman. New York: Greenwood Press.

Wickline, Donovan. 1998. žWalking a Tightrope: Redrawing Congressional District Lines After Shaw v. Reno and its Progeny.Ó Fordham Urban Law Journal 25: 641-671.

Zagarri, Rosemarie. 1987. The Politics of Size . Ithaca: Cornell University Press.