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=q98The Single Transferable Vote:Mechanics and Implications99(FairVote s Election Services Group
Robert Richie, Executive Director
www.fairvote.org/esg
3012704616&iP$EF;
!0FV"Overview: Single Transferable Vote##$Proportionality
What STV does
How STV works
A narrated example
Summary of points about STV
Implications for your firm
Questions&u'
/Introduction: The principle of proportionality00(A majority of voters deserves a majority of representation.
But every sufficiently large group of likeminded voters has a right to representation in proportion to its share of the vote.
As many people as possible should have their one vote count toward representation.
These goals are achieved through the single transferable vote, or STV. WW
What STV does(Allows voters to express a full and sincere ordering of choices by ranking candidates.
Elects a group of representatives that advocate the views and interests of as many voters as possible.
Encourages a wider range of candidates to run by eliminating concerns about likeminded candidates splitting supporters votes.
Achieves proportional representation.
Big groupings of voters win more seats, small groupings win fewer seats, everyone gets a fair share.
RfZeZZCf"How STV works: The basics(FA candidate wins a seat by receiving a share of the vote roughly equal to the number of votes divided by the number of seats.
Every voter s ballot has a value of one vote. Nearly every voter helps elect one of their favorite candidates.
Voters rank candidates in order of preference (first, second, third and so on) for as many candidates as they wish. Ranking additional candidates will not affect the chances of a higherranked candidate.
Your ballot will help elect the highestranked candidate on your ballot who can win with your support.
J~PP<PPhP$3! How STV works: Victory threshold!!$+To allow as many voters as possible to elect a candidate, the victory threshold is set as the lowest share of the vote that only the winning number of candidates can receive.
The victory threshold equals:
[Total votes cast / (Seats + 1)] + 1 vote*
*disregarding fractions
For example, when voters with 2,000 votes elect one seat, winning requires (2,000/2) + 1: 1,001 votes, 50.1%
Likewise, when voters with 2,000 votes elect 18 seats, winning a seat requires (2,000/19) + 1: 106 votes, or 5.3%`PPmPPsP30<How STV works: Counting 1st choices and determining winners*=(
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Candidates win by receiving a number of votes equal to or greater than the victory threshold.
In the first round of counting your ballot counts as one vote for your 1st choice.
If your 1st choice wins with more votes than the winning threshold, then the surplus value of your ballot counts for your 2nd choice candidate.
* Surplus value is transferred to avoid votes being wasted
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>5$*How STV works: Completing the ballotcountIf all seats are not filled after transferring surplus, the lastplace candidate is eliminated.
Ballots cast for that eliminated candidate are then counted at full value for the next choice candidate listed on each ballot.
If the nextchoice candidate has won or been eliminated, your ballot will count for the next continuing candidate listed on your ballot.
Lastplace candidates are eliminated until all seats have been filled. Z #Effect on voting incentivesSTV provides a means of selforganization: likeminded voters who rank the same candidates will elect one or more candidates with their views.
If a likeminded grouping of voters has more votes than it needs to elect a candidate, its surplus votes will provide a chance to elect additional seats.
As long as supporters of likeminded candidates rank those candidates ahead of other candidates, they will win a fair share of seats.
Vote splitting is eliminated. There are no spoilers. 'How it works: An STV tabulation example"('(('
Suppose there are 99 voters for 9 seats, with 15 candidates running
Victory threshold= 10 votes
9 seats @ 10 votes = 90 voters represented (over 90% success)
STV tabulation example(Imagine that each candidate is represented by a bin that can only hold 10 ballots.
An STV tabulation starts with ballotcounters placing the voters ballots into the bins of the 1st choice candidate listed on each ballot.@SZZZ)STV tabulation example(Once a bin is full (containing 10 ballots), that candidate is elected. Any additional ballots that would count for the elected candidate are instead placed in the bin of the next choice candidate listed on that voter s ballot.
After counting all the ballots, let s imagine that 4 bins are filled, but 11 bins still have fewer than 10 ballots.Lta$8%1 STV example: Summary (1There are 9 candidates elected with 10 votes each, representing at least 90 of the 99 voters.
A likeminded group of voters with 10 votes can win 1 seat to represent them,
A likeminded group of voters with 20 votes can win 2 seats,
A likeminded group of voters with 30 votes can win 3 seats,
And so on.
2Z2%Note: Counting surplus ballots(This STV example used one simplification: whole ballot surplus transfers instead of fractional transfers.
In practice, a firm would use fractional transfers to provide more precision. Here is how to calculate fractional transfers.
Example: If a candidate has 20 votes and needs 10 to win, a surplus of 10 votes needs to be distributed.
Old whole transfer method: randomly choose 10 votes to transfer to next choice candidates and 10 votes to remain with winning candidate.
Modern fractional transfer method: transfer all 20 votes at a fractional value equal to 10/20 = 0.5 votes.LZLConclusions(<STV is an extremely efficient voting system.
Voters should pay particular attention to their #1 ranking, since a majority of voters almost certainly will help elect their #1 choice.
But voters should rank all candidates they would like to see elected to ensure that they help elect at least one of their top choices.==Conclusions, continued
(
(If you want a particular kind of diversity within your resulting group of representatives, seek it among your candidates.
For example, the more female candidates you have, the more you will likely elect. If you limit the number of female candidates, you may limit the number of female winners.
A wellconstructed slate will likely eliminate the need for preemptive constraints on results.*7Potential implications of STV for Nominating Committees88(How many candidates to nominate from each likeminded group of voters?
Every likeminded group of voters above threshold is likely to elect a proportional share of seats.
How many women, geographic minorities, or racial/ethnic minorities to nominate?
The more, the greater the odds of election.
No concerns about vote splitting if voters know unwise to bullet vote for just one candidate.
Even if a candidate loses this election, they might become a winning candidate in a future election.^GZdZPZZGdPPotential questions(How many candidates should voters rank?
Are we guaranteed to elect a set number of seats?
What preemptive constraints should we be aware of?
What term limits are best for seats?
Strategic voting?(Z':&&For more information, please contact:''(Robert Richie
Executive Director
FairVote s Election Services Group
3012704616
www.FairVote.org
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* Also called choice voting 2jPP$dFF,!0FV"Overview: Single Transferable Vote##$Proportionality
What STV does
How STV works
A narrated example
Summary of points about STV
Implications for your organization / firm
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/Introduction: The principle of proportionality00(
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!"#$%'(A majority of voters deserves a majority of representation.
But every sufficiently large group of likeminded voters has a right to representation in proportion to its share of the vote.
As many people as possible should have their one vote count towaPowerPoint Document( wDocumentSummaryInformation8Root EntrydO)AؗPicturesCurrent User&SummaryInformation(P&
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Blueprint:The Single Transferable Vote*: Mechanics and Implicrd representation.
These goals are achieved through the single transferable vote, or STV. WW
What STV does(Allows voters to express a full and sincere ordering of choices by ranking candidates.
Elects a group of representatives that advocate the views and interests of as many voters as possible.
Encourages a wider range of candidates to run by eliminating concerns about likeminded candidates splitting supporters votes.
Achieves proportional representation.
Big groupings of voters win more seats, small groupings win fewer seats, everyone gets a fair share.
RfZeZZCf"How STV works: The basics(FA candidate wins a seat by receiving a share of the vote roughly equal to the number of votes divided by the number of seats.
Every voter s ballot has a value of one vote. Nearly every voter helps elect one of their favorite candidates.
Voters rank candidates in order of preference (first, second, third and so on) for as many candidates as they wish. Ranking additional candidates will not affect the chances of a higherranked candidate.
Your ballot will help elect the highestranked candidate on your ballot who can win with your support.
J~PP<PPhP$3! How STV works: Victory threshold!!$+To allow as many voters as possible to elect a candidate, the victory threshold is set as the lowest share of the vote that only the winning number of candidates can receive.
The victory threshold equals:
[Total votes cast / (Seats + 1)] + 1 vote*
*disregarding fractions
For example, when voters with 2,000 votes elect one seat, winning requires (2,000/2) + 1: 1,001 votes, 50.1%
Likewise, when voters with 2,000 votes elect 18 seats, winning a seat requires (2,000/19) + 1: 106 votes, or 5.3%`PPmPPsP30<How STV works: Counting 1st choices and determining winners*=(
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Candidates win by receiving a number of votes equal to or greater than the victory threshold.
In the first round of counting your ballot counts as one vote for your 1st choice.
If your 1st choice wins with more votes than the winning threshold, then the surplus value of your ballot counts for your 2nd choice candidate.
* Surplus value is transferred to avoid votes being wasted
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@5$*How STV works: Completing the ballotcountIf all seats are not filled after transferring surplus ballot values, the lastplace candidate is eliminated.
Ballots cast for that eliminated candidate are then counted at full value for the next choice candidate listed on each ballot.
If the nextchoice candidate has won or been eliminated, your ballot will count for the next continuing candidate listed on your ballot.
Lastplace candidates are eliminated until all seats have been filled. Z #Effect on voting incentivesSTV provides a means of selforganization: likeminded voters who rank the same candidates will elect one or more candidates with their views.
If a likeminded grouping of voters has more votes than it needs to elect a candidate, its surplus votes will provide a chance to elect additional seats.
As long as supporters of likeminded candidates rank those candidates ahead of other candidates, they will win a fair share of seats.
Vote splitting is eliminated. There are no spoilers. 'How it works: An STV tabulation example"('(('
Suppose there are 99 voters for 9 seats, with 15 candidates running
Victory threshold= 10 votes
9 seats @ 10 votes = 90 voters represented (over 90% success)
STV tabulation example(Imagine that each candidate is represented by a bin that can only hold 10 ballots.
An STV tabulation starts with ballotcounters placing the voters ballots into the bins of the 1st choice candidate listed on each ballot.@SZZZ)STV tabulation example(Once a bin is full (containing 10 ballots), that candidate is elected. Any additional ballots that would count for the elected candidate are instead placed in the bin of the next choice candidate listed on that voter s ballot.
After counting all the ballots, let s imagine that 4 bins are filled, but 11 bins still have fewer than 10 ballots.Lta$8%1 STV example: Summary (1There are 9 candidates elected with 10 votes each, representing at least 90 of the 99 voters.
A likeminded group of voters with 10 votes can win 1 seat to represent them,
A likeminded group of voters with 20 votes can win 2 seats,
A likeminded group of voters with 30 votes can win 3 seats,
And so on.
2Z2%Note: Counting surplus ballots(This STV example used one simplification: whole ballot surplus transfers instead of fractional transfers.
In practice, an organization or firm would use fractional transfers to provide more precision. Here is how to calculate fractional transfers.
Example: If a candidate has 20 votes and needs 10 votes to win, a surplus of 10 votes needs to be distributed.
Old whole transfer method: randomly choose 10 votes to transfer to next choice candidates and 10 votes to remain with winning candidate.
Modern fractional transfer method: transfer all 20 votes at a fractional value equal to 10/20 = 0.5 votes.cZcConclusions(<STV is an extremely efficient voting system.
Voters should pay particular attention to their #1 ranking, since a majority of voters almost certainly will help elect their #1 choice.
But voters should rank all candidates they would like to see elected to ensure that they help elect at least one of their top choices.==Conclusions, continued
(
(,If you want a particular kind of diversity within your resulting group of representatives, seek it among your candidates.
For example, the more female candidates you have, the more women you will likely elect. If you limit the number of female candidates, you may limit the number of female winners.
,*7Potential implications of STV for Nominating Committees88(How many candidates to nominate from each likeminded group of voters?
Every likeminded group of voters above threshold is likely to elect a proportional share of seats.
How many women, geographic minorities, or racial/ethnic minorities to nominate?
The more, the greater the odds of election.
No concerns about vote splitting if voters know unwise to bullet vote for just one candidate.
Even if a candidate loses this election, they might become a winning candidate in a future election.^GZdZPZZGdP:&&For more information, please contact:''(Robert Richie
Executive Director
FairVote s Election Services Group
3012704616
www.FairVote.org
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hMCations#Overview: Single Transferable Vote0Introduction: The principle of proportionalityWhat STV doesHow STV works: The basics!How STV works: Victory threshold=How STV works: Counting 1st choices and determining winners+How STV works: Completing the ballotcountEffect on voting incentives(How it works: An STV tabulation exampleSTV tabulation exampleSTV tabulation examplePowerPoint PresentationSTV tabulation examplePowerPoint PresentationPowerPoint PresentationKCandidate 6 Candidate 7 Candidate 8 Candidate 9 Candidate 10 STV example: Summary Note: Counting surplus ballotsConclusionsConclusions, continued8Potential implications of STV for Nominating Committees'For more information, please contact:Fonts UsedDesign Template
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