Majority Rule in the World's Democracies
Majority rule through IRV or majority runoffs are the standard in modern democracies. In the following chart, out of 28 international presidential elections studied, 21 require a majority winner. Only 4 require a plurality, and only 3 use another method. Of those three, at least one, the United States has no majority requirement in presidential elections in terms of popular vote.
|Costa Rica||Mod. MR|
MR: Majority Runoff (denominator used to calculate the absolute majority threshold [50%]
ranges from valid votes, to all votes, to registered voters).
PL: Plurality (First Past the Post).
IRV: Instant runoff voting.
Mod DCR: 45% threshold, or 40% and 10% more than the #2 candidate, to avoid a runoff.
Mod. MR: 40% threshold to avoid a runoff.
EC: Electoral College.
Source: Mark P. Jones, Associate Professor of Political Science, Rice University.